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Timber Trees in India

Common name

Botanical Name

Colour

Location

Important Characteristics

Aini or Aangili

Artocarpus hirsutus

Yellowish brown

Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, T.N.,Karnataka, Kerala

Elastic, close-grained, and strong. It takes polish. It can be used underwater

Arjun

Terminalia arjunaTerminalia elliptica

Dark brown

Central India

Heavy and strong: used for beams, rafters, and posts.

Axlewood

Anogeissus latifolia

 

Andhra Pradesh, T.N., Maharashtra,M.P., Bihar,U.P.

Tough and Strong: takes a smooth finish but is susceptible to cracking.

Babul

Acacia niloticasubsp. indica

Whitish red

Rajasthan, Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra, M.P., T.N., Karnataka, Bengal, Gujarat, U.P.

Tough, hard and Strong: used in bodies and wheels of bullock cart, agricultural instruments, tool handles, and well curbs.

Bakul

Mimusops elengi, Mimusops parvifolia

Reddish brown

Some parts of North India

Close-grained and tough

Bamboo

Family Poaceae, tribe Bambuseae

 

All over  India, especially Assam and Bengal

Note: Its not actually a tree, but a woody grass
Flexible, very strong and durable: variety of uses

Banyan

Ficus benghalensis

Brown

All over  India

Strong and durable only under water

Benteak

Lagerstoemia parviflora

 

Kerala, Maharashtra, Karnataka

It is strong and takes up a smooth surface. It may be used for building constructions, boat building and furniture.

Bijasal

Pterocarpus marsupium

Light brown

Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, M.P., Maharashtra, Kerala, U.P., T.N., Orissa

Coarse-grained, durable and strong but difficult to work. Resists termites. It is used for ordinary building construction and for cart wheels

Casuarina

Casuarinaspp.

Reddish brown

Andhra Pradesh, T.N.

Grows straight and is strong and fibrous

Coconut

Cocos nucifera

Reddish brown

All over  coastal India

Takes polish but requires preservative treatment. Used as poles, piles, furniture and as formwork in concrete construction.

Deodar

Cedrus deodara

Yellowish brown

Himalayas, Punjab, U.P.

Soft, moderately strong but easily workable. Used for cheap furniture and packing boxes

Gumar

Gymnema sylvestre

Pale yellow

Central India, South India

Easily workable, strong and durable especially when used under water

Hopea

Hopea parviflora

Light to deep brown

Kerala

Extremely strong and tough but difficult to work. Durable and termite resistant

Himalayan Elm, Indian Elm

Ulmus wallichiana

Red

All over  India

Moderately hard and strong. It is used for door and window frames, carts

Ironwood, Penaga Lilin,

Mesua ferrea

Reddish brown

 

Durable and very hard, not easily workable

Irul, Pyinkado

Xylia xylocarpa

 

Karnataka, Kerala, Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra, Orissa, T.N.

Very hard, heavy and durable but not easily workable, requires slow and careful seasoning

Jack

Mangifera caesia.

Yellow, darkens with age

Karnataka, Maharashtra, T.N., Kerala

Compact and even grained, moderately strong and easy to work, takes a good finish and maintains its shape well. Multiple uses

Jarul

Lagerstroemiaflos-reginae

Light reddish gray

Assam, Bengal, Maharashtra

Hard and durable, and can be easily worked. Takes a good finish and usable for multiple uses

Kathal, Keledang, Jackfruit

Artocarpus heterophyllus

Yellow to deep brown

Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, Kerala, Maharashtra, T.N.

Heavy and hard, durable under water and in damp conditions, cracks if exposed to direct sun. Termite proof

Lauraceae, Saj

Lauraceae

Dark brown

Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Orissa, M.P., Kerala, T.N.

It is strong, hard and tough but susceptible to cracking and attack by dry rot. Termite proof. Takes a smooth finish

Mahogany

Swietenia spp.

Reddish brown

 

It takes a good polish and is easily worked. It is durable under water. It is most commonly used for furniture, pattern making and cabinet work.

Mango

Mangifera spp.

Deep gray

All over  India

Used for cheap furniture

Mulberry

Morus spp.

Brown

Punjab

Strong, tough and elastic, takes up a clean finish and can be seasoned. It is turned and carved easily. Mulberry is typically used for baskets and sports goods like hockey sticks and cricket bats.

Oak

Quercus spp.

Yellowish brown

 

Strong and durable, with straight grain. Used for sporting goods.

Palm

Arecaceae

Dark brown

All over  India

Strong, durable and fibrous. The outer crust has ripe dark brown coloured wood. Palm is used for furniture, roof covering, rafters and joists.

Pine

Pinus spp.

 

 

Pine wood is hard and tough but prone to decaying, heavy and coarse grained. It is used for pattern making, frames for doors and windows, and for paving material. 
White pine is soft, light and straight grained and is used in the manufacture of matches.

Red cedar

 

Red

Assam, Nagpur

Soft and even grained. It is used for furniture, door panels and well curbs.

Rosewood

Dalbergia latifolia

Dark

Kerala, Karnataka, Maharashtra, M.P., T.N., Orrissa

Strong, tough and close-grained. Takes good polish. Very desirable for furniture

Sal

Shorea robusta

Brown

Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra, U.P., Bihar, M.P., Orissa

Hard, fibrous and close-grained, does not take up a good polish, requires slow and careful seasoning but is durable under ground and water

Sandalwood

Santalum spp.

White or Red

Karnataka, T.N., Kerala, Assam, Nagpur, Bengal

Known for its pleasant smell

Satinwood

Chloroxylon swietenia

Yellow

Central and Southern India

It is very hard and durable. It is close grained. It is used for furniture and other ornamental works. Vulnerable

Simul

Bombax spp.

White

All over India

Loose grained, inferior quality wood. Light-weight wood

Siris

Albizia spp.

Dark brown

North India

Hard and durable, but difficult to work with

Sissoo

Dalbergia sissoo

Dark brown

Mysore, Maharashtra, Assam, Bengal, U.P., Orissa

Better known as shisham or tali, this wood is strong and tough. It is durable and maintains its shape well. It can be easily seasoned. Difficult to work but it takes a fine polish. Used for high-quality furniture

Spruce

Picea spp.

 

 

Resists decay but prone to shrinkage, twist and warp

Sundri

Heritiera fomes

Dark red

Bengal

Hard and tough and difficult to season and work with. It is elastic and close grained. It is strong and durable

Tamarind

Tamarindus indica

Dark brown

All over India

Durable but knotty

Teak

Tectona grandis

Deep yellow to dark brown

Central India and Southern India

Moderately hard, teak is durable and fire-resistant. Very desirable for good quality furniture. Expensive

Toon, Red Cedar

Toona ciliata

Reddish brown or dull red

Assam

Easily workable light-weight wood