Amendments to the Indian Constitution
Here is a list of all amendments to the Indian Constitution.
Amendments are very frequently asked in Civil Services Exam by UPSC and other exams
Date of Enforcement
|1st amendment||June 18, 1951||To fully secure the constitutional validity of zamindari abolition laws.
To place reasonable restriction on freedom of speech.
A new constitutional device, called Schedule 9 introduced to protect laws that are contrary to the Constitutionally guaranteed fundamental rights.
These laws encroach upon property rights, freedom of speech and equality before law
|2nd amendment||May 1, 1953||A technical amendment to fix the size of each parliamentary constituency between 650,000 and 850,000 voters.|
|3rd amendment||February 22, 1955||Limits maximum no of seats in lok Sabha up to 500
States to be divided into constituencies such that one member of a constituency represents between 500000 and 750000 people
|4th amendment||April 27, 1955||Restrictions on property rights and inclusion of related bills in Schedule 9 of the constitution|
|5th amendment||December 24, 1955||Provides for a consultation mechanism with concerned states in matters relating to the amendments to the territorial matters and in the re-naming of the state|
|6th amendment||September 11, 1956||Amended the Union and State Lists with respect to raising of taxes|
|7th amendment||November 1, 1956||Reorganization of states on linguistic lines
Abolition of Class A, B, C, D states
Introduction of Union Territories
|8th amendment||January 5, 1960||Clarify state's power of compulsory acquisition and requisitioning of private property
Include Zamindari abolition laws in Schedule 9 of the constitution
|9th amendment||December 28, 1960||Minor adjustments to territory of Indian Union consequent to agreement with Pakistan for settlement of disputes by demarcation of border villages, etc.|
|10th amendment||August 11, 1961||Incorporation of Dadra, Nagar and Haveli as a Union Territory after acquisition from Portugal|
|11th amendment||December 19, 1961||Election of Vice President by Electoral College consisting of members of both Houses of Parliament, instead of election by a Joint Sitting of Parliament.
Indemnify the President and Vice President Election procedure from challenge on grounds of existence of any vacancies in the electoral college
|12th amendment||December 20, 1961||Incorporation of Goa, Daman and Diu as a Union Territory, after acquisition from Portugal|
|13th amendment||December 1, 1963||Formation of State of Nagaland, with special protection under Article 371A|
|14th amendment||December 28, 1962||Incorporation of Pondicherry into the Union of India
Creation of Legislative Assemblies for Himachal Pradesh, Tripura, Manipur and Goa
|15th amendment||October 5, 1963||Raise retirement age of judges from 60 to 62
Other minor amendments for rationalizing interpretation of rules regarding judges etc.
|16th amendment||October 5, 1963||Make it obligatory for seekers of public office to swear their allegiance to the Indian Republic and prescribe the various obligatory templates|
|17th amendment||June 20, 1964||To secure the constitutional validity of acquisition of Estates and place land acquisition laws in Schedule 9 of the constitution|
|18th amendment||August 27, 1966||Technical Amendment to include Union Territories in Article 3 and hence permit reorganisation of Union Territories|
|19th amendment||December 11, 1966||Abolish Election Tribunals and enable trial of election petitions by regular High Courts|
|20th amendment||December 22, 1966||Indemnify & validate judgments, decrees, orders and sentences passed by judges.
Validate the appointment, posting, promotion and transfer of judges except those not eligible for appointment under article 233.
Amendment was needed to overcome the effect of judgement invalidating appointments of certain judges in the state of Uttar Pradesh
|21th amendment||April 10, 1967||Included Sindhi as a National Language|
|22nd amendment||September 25, 1969||Provision to form Autonomous states within the State of Assam|
|23rd amendment||January 23, 1970||Extend reservation for SC / ST and nomination of Anglo Indian members in Parliament and State Assemblies for another ten years i.e. up to 1980|
|24th amendment||November 5, 1971||Enable parliament to dilute fundamental rights through amendments to the constitution|
|25th amendment||April 20, 1972||Restrict property rights and compensation in case the state takes over private property|
|26th amendment||December 28, 1971||Abolition of privy purse paid to former rulers of princely states which were incorporated into the Indian Republic|
|27th amendment||February 15, 1972||Reorganization of Mizoram into a Union Territory with a legislature and council of ministers|
|28th amendment||August 29, 1972||Rationalized Civil Service rules to make it uniform across those appointed prior to Independence and post independence|
|29th amendment||June 9, 1972||Places land reform acts and amendments to these act under Schedule 9 of the constitution|
|30th amendment||February 27, 1973||Changes the basis for appeals in Supreme Court of India in case of Civil Suits from value criteria to one involving substantial question of law|
|31th amendment||October 17, 1973||Increased size of Parliament from 525 to 545 seats.
Increased seats went to the new states formed in North East India and minor adjustment consequent to 1971 Delimitation exercise
|32nd amendment||July 1, 1974||Protection of regional rights in Telangana and Andhra regions of State of Andhra Pradesh|
|33rd amendment||May 19, 1974||Prescribes procedure for resignation by members of parliament and state legislatures
Prescribes procedure for verification and acceptance of resignation by house speaker
|34th amendment||September 7, 1974||Place land reform acts and amendments to these act under Schedule 9 of the constitution|
|35th amendment||March 1, 1975||Terms and Conditions for the Incorporation of Sikkim into the Union of India|
|36th amendment||April 26, 1975||Formation of Sikkim as a State within the Indian Union|
|37th amendment||May 3, 1975||Formation of Arunachal Pradesh legislative assembly|
|38th amendment||August 1, 1975||Enhances the powers of President and Governors to pass ordinances|
|39th amendment||August 10, 1975||Negated the judgement of Allahabad High Court invalidating Prime Minister Indira Gandhi's election to parliament.
Amendment placed restrictions on judicial scrutiny of post of Prime Minister
|40th amendment||May 27, 1976||Enable Parliament to make laws with respect to Exclusive Economic Zone and vest the mineral wealth with Union of India.
Place land reform & other acts and amendments to these act under Schedule 9 of the constitution
|41th amendment||September 7, 1976||Raised Retirement Age Limit of Chairmen and Members of Union and State Public Commissions from sixty to sixty two.|
|42nd amendment||April 1, 1977||Amendment passed during internal emergency by Indira Gandhi.
Provides for curtailment of fundamental rights, imposes fundamental duties and changes to the basic structure of the constitution by making India a "Socialist Secular" Republic
|43rd amendment||April 13, 1978||Amendment passed after revocation of internal emergency in the Country.
Repeals some of the more 'Anti-Freedom' amendments enacted through Amendment Bill 42
|44th amendment||September 6, 1979||Amendment passed after revocation of internal emergency in the Country.
Provides for human rights safeguards and mechanisms to prevent abuse of executive and legislative authority.
Annuls some Amendments enacted in Amendment Bill 42
|45th amendment||January 25, 1980||Extend reservation for SC / ST and nomination of Anglo Indian members in Parliament and State Assemblies for another ten years i.e. up to 1990|
|46th amendment||February 2, 1983||Amendment to negate judicial pronouncements on scope and applicability on Sales Tax|
|47th amendment||August 26, 1984||Place land reform acts and amendments to these act under Schedule 9 of the constitution|
|48th amendment||April 1, 1985||Article 356 amended to permit President's rule up to two years in the state of Punjab|
|49th amendment||September 11, 1984||Recognize Tripura as a Tribal State and enable the creation of a Tripura Tribal Areas Autonomous District Council|
|50th amendment||September 11, 1984||Technical Amendment to curtailment of Fundamental Rights as per Part III as prescribed in Article 33 to cover Security Personnel protecting property and communication infrastructure|
|51th amendment||June 16, 1986||Provide reservation to Scheduled Tribes in Nagaland, Meghalaya, Mizoram and Arunachal Pradesh Legislative Assemblies|
|52nd amendment||March 1, 1985||Anti Defection Law - Provide disqualification of members from parliament and assembly in case of defection from one party to other|
|53rd amendment||February 20, 1987||Special provision with respect to the State of Mizoram.|
|54th amendment||April 1, 1986||Increase the salary of Chief Justice of India & other Judges
Provisions for determining future increases without the need for constitutional amendment
|55th amendment||February 20, 1987||Special powers to Governor consequent to formation of state of Arunachal Pradesh|
|56th amendment||May 30, 1987||Transition provision to enable formation of state of Goa|
|57th amendment||September 21, 1987||Provide reservation to Scheduled Tribes in Nagaland, Meghalaya, Mizoram and Arunachal Pradesh Legislative Assemblies|
|58th amendment||December 9, 1987||Provision to publish authentic Hindi translation of constitution
Provision to publish authentic Hindi translation of future amendments
|59th amendment||March 30, 1988||Article 356 amended to permit President's rule up to three years in the state of Punjab
Articles 352 and Article 359A amended to permit imposing emergency in state of Punjab or in specific districts of the state of Punjab
|60th amendment||December 20, 1988||Professional Tax increased from a maximum of Rs. 250/- to a maximum of Rs. 2500/-|
|61th amendment||March 28, 1989||Reduce age for voting rights from 21 to 18|
|62nd amendment||December 20, 1989||Extend reservation for SC / ST and nomination of Anglo Indian members in Parliament and State Assemblies for another ten years i.e. up to 2000|
|63rd amendment||January 6, 1990||Emergency powers applicable to State of Punjab, accorded in Article 359A as per amendment 59 repealed|
|64th amendment||April 16, 1990||Article 356 amended to permit President's rule up to three years and six months in the state of Punjab|
|65th amendment||March 12, 1992||National Commission for Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes formed and its statutory powers specified in The Constitution.|
|66th amendment||June 7, 1990||Place land reform acts and amendments to these act under Schedule 9 of the constitution|
|67th amendment||October 4, 1990||Article 356 amended to permit President's rule up to four years in the state of Punjab|
|68th amendment||March 12, 1991||Article 356 amended to permit President's rule up to five years in the state of Punjab|
|69th amendment||February 1, 1992||To provide for a legislative assembly and council of ministers for Federal National Capital of Delhi. Delhi continues to be a Union Territory|
|70th amendment||December 21, 1991||Include National Capital of Delhi and Union Territory of Pondicherry in electoral college for Presidential Election|
|71th amendment||August 31, 1992||Include Konkani, Manipuri and Nepali as National Languages|
|72nd amendment||December 5, 1992||Provide reservation to Scheduled Tribes in Tripura State Legislative Assembly|
|73rd amendment||April 24, 1993||Statutory provisions for Panchayat Raj as third level of administration in villages|
|74th amendment||June 1, 1993||Statutory provisions for Local Administrative bodies as third level of administration in urban areas such as towns and cities|
|75th amendment||May 15, 1994||Provisions for setting up Rent Control Tribunals|
|76th amendment||August 31, 1994||Enable continuance of 69% reservation in Tamil Nadu by including the relevant Tamil Nadu Act under 9th Schedule of the constitution|
|77th amendment||June 17, 1995||A technical amendment to protect reservation to SC/ST Employees in promotions|
|78th amendment||August 30, 1995||Place land reform acts and amendments to these act under Schedule 9 of the constitution|
|79th amendment||January 25, 2000||Extend reservation for SC / ST and nomination of Anglo Indian members in Parliament and State Assemblies for another ten years i.e. up to 2010|
|80th amendment||June 9, 2000||Implement Tenth Finance Commission recommendation to simplify the tax structures by pooling and sharing all taxes between states and The Centre|
|81th amendment||June 9, 2000||Protect SC / ST reservation in filling backlog of vacancies|
|82nd amendment||September 8, 2000||Permit relaxation of qualifying marks and other criteria in reservation in promotion for SC / ST candidates|
|83rd amendment||September 8, 2000||Exempt Arunachal Pradesh from reservation for Scheduled Castes in Panchayati Raj institutions|
|84th amendment||February 21, 2002||Extend the usage of 1971 national census population figures for state wise distribution of parliamentary seats|
|85th amendment||January 4, 2002||A technical amendment to protect seniority in case of promotions of SC/ST Employees|
|86th amendment||December 12, 2002||Provides Right to Education until the age of fourteen and Early childhood care until the age of six|
|87th amendment||June 22, 2003||Extend the usage of 1971 national census population figures for state wise distribution of parliamentary seats|
|88th amendment||January 15, 2004||To extend statutory cover for levy and utilization of Service Tax|
|89th amendment||September 28, 2003||The National Commission for Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes was bifurcated into The National Commission for Scheduled Castes and The National Commission for Scheduled Tribes|
|90th amendment||September 28, 2003||Reservation in Assam Assembly relating to Bodoland Territory Area|
|91th amendment||January 1, 2004||Restrict the size of council of ministers to 15 % of legislative members & to strengthen Anti Defection laws|
|92nd amendment||January 7, 2004||Enable Levy of Service Tax
Include Bodo, Dogri, Santali and Maithili as National Languages
|93rd amendment||January 20, 2006||To enable provision of reservation for other backward classes (O.B.C.) in government as well as private educational institutions|
|94th amendment||June 12, 2006||To provide for a Minister of Tribal Welfare in newly created Jharkhand and Chhattisgarh States|
|95th amendment||25 January 2010||Extended the reservation of seats in Lok Sabha and State Assemblies for SC and ST from sixty to seventy years|
|96th amendment||23 September 2011||Substituted "Odia" for "Oriya"|
|97th amendment||12 January 2012||Added the words "or co-operative societies" in Article 19(l)(c) and inserted article 43B i.e, Promotion of Co-operative Societies and added Part-IXB i.e, THE CO-OPERATIVE SOCIETIES|
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